The Missions

The first religious groups to set foot in New France began their new life by undertaking an important missionary enterprise. This enterprise cannot be dissociated from the introduction of religion in New France since it is the main purpose of the colony. To carry out christianisation efficiently, missionaries played many roles such as interpreters and explorers. They were the spearhead of the enterprise and explored territories that were until then unknown to the French.


Coffret rectangulaire qui, une fois ouvert, déploie des panneaux latéraux en guise d'autel et conserve des prières sur la surface interne du couvercle. Au centre des prières, l'illustration d'un calice et d'une hostie symbolise le tabernacle. / A rectangular casket which, when opened, has retractable side panels that can be used as an altar. Prayers are inscribed on the inner surface of the lid, and in their midst is a drawing of a chalice and a Holy Wafer which together represent the Tabernacle.

Autel portatif, undated

Tadoussac
North Coast Historic Society




Sur un lac entouré de conifères, des hommes en canots pagaient la tête recouverte d'un morceau de tissu de manière à éviter les piqûres de moustiques. / On a lake surrounded by fir trees, men in canoes are rowing, as their heads are covered with pieces of cloth so as to avoid mosquito bites.

Mosquito Lake

in Henry Youle Hind, Explorations in the Interior of the Labrador, 1863
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Library, 709.2

Marangoins

The French in all Canada call the gnats Marangoins, which name, it is said, they have borrowed from the Indians. These insects are in such prodigious numbers in the woods round Fort St. John, that it would be more properly called Fort de Marangoins. The marshes and the low situation of the country, together with the extent of the woods, contribute greatly to their multiplying so much; and when the woods are cut down, the water drained, and the country cultivated, they probably will decrease in number, and vanish at last, as they have done in other places. (See Pehr Kalm)

Gnats

Gnats are innumerable here; and as soon as one looks out of doors, they immediately attack him; and they are still worse in the woods. They are exactly the same gnats as our common Swedish ones, being only somewhat less than the North-American goats all are. Near Fort St. Jean, I have likewise seen gnats, which were the same with ours, but they were somewhat bigger, almost of the size of our crane flies. Those, which are here, are beyond measure bloodthirsty. However, I comforted myself, because the time of their disappearance was near at hand. (See Pehr Kalm)

Gnats (2)

The Gnats in this wood were more numerous than we could have wished. Their bite irritates the skin. The Jesuits Fathers of Lorette says that the best remedy against their attack is to rub the face and the bare body parts with grease. Also, It is said that cold water is the best remedy against their bite, as long as the wounded places are washed with it immediately after. (See Pehr Kalm)

Houseflies

The common houseflies have but been observed in this country about one hundred and fifty years ago, as I have been assured by several persons in this town, and in Quebec. All the Indians assert the same thing, and are of opinion that the common flies first came over here with the Europeans and their ships, which were stranded on this coast. I shall not dispute this; however, I know, that whilst I was in the solitudes between Saratoga and Crown Point, or fort St. Frederic, and sat down to rest or to eat, a number of our common flies always came and settled on me. It is therefore dubious, whether they have not been longer in America than the term above-mentioned, or whether they have been imported from Europe. On the other hand, it may be urged that the flies were left in those solitudes at the time when fort Anne was yet in a good condition, and when the English often travelled there and back again; not to mention that several Europeans, both before and after that time, had travelled through those places, and carried the flies with them, which were attracted by their provisions. (See Pehr Kalm)




Mis côte à côte, les trois dos des volumes de Pehr Kalm identifient l'auteur et le titre de l'ouvrage. / Placed side by side, the backs of Pehr Kalm's three volumes identify the author and the title of each work.

Travels into North America

in Pehr Kalm, Travels into North America, 1770
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Library, 236.1.3v

Pehr Kalm (1716-1779)

Swedish-born Pehr Kalm, who had spent most of his life in Finland, was sent to North America with the mission to catalogue the various species of wildlife and to bring back a few specimens. Between 1748 and 1751, not only did he observe American and Canadian nature, but he also observed the customs of its inhabitants, and mainly those of the settlers of New France. As a Professor of Economics and Natural History, he published, during the second half of the 18th Century, his travel log entitled En Resa teil Norra America, which is recognized as a rich and detailed historical source.




Agenouillés autour d'un autel, des Amérindiens assistent à une messe en plein air, donnée par un prêtre européen. / Kneeling around an altar, Amerindians listen to an outdoor mass, celebrated by a European priest.

Première messe trifluvienne, 26 juillet 1615, undated

in Fastes trifluviens: tableaux d'histoire trifluvienne sous le régime français, 1931
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Library, 590.3.29




Sur l'eau calme du fleuve, des hommes et des religieux naviguent à bord de deux canots. / On the still waters of the river, men, including priests, travel in two canoes.

Sur le Mississipi, undated

in Ernest Gagnon, Louis Jolliet, 1913
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Library, 620.5




En bordure du fleuve Saint-Laurent, deux canots arrivent sur les berges du Fort Lachine dont la palissade de bois protège des installations militaires. / On the banks of the St. Lawrence River, two canoes come to shore near Fort Lachine, with its wooden palisade protecting military installations.

Fort Lachine en 1689, undated

in Père Alexis, Le Canada héroïque et pittoresque, 1927
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Library, 651.4




Aux abords d'une chute, des Amérindiens portent un canot pendant qu'un explorateur et un coureur des bois marche dans une nature automnale. / Beside a waterfall in autumn, Amerindians carry a canoe, while an explorer and a trapper walk in the wilderness.

Exploring the Unknown, 1920

J.D. Kelly
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Collection, 1993.15371




Sur un chemin enneigé et boueux, une personne se promène dans une nature formée de feuillues et de conifères. / On a muddy, snow-covered path, a figure strolls in a natural setting of broad-leaved trees and evergreens.

Dégel en avril, 1909

Marc-Aurèle de Foy Suzor-Côté
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Collection, gift from J. Édouard Côté, 1993.15659




Dans un paysage hivernal, une carriole entame sa route sur un long chemin. / In a winter landscape, a sleigh starts out on a long journey.

Cette existence toujours uniforme, 1971

Jean-Paul Lemieux
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Collection, 1993.18751.8




À la brunante, un prêtre Récollet marche dans un paysage aride et montagneux à l'aide d'un bâton du pèlerin, aussi nommé bourdon. / At dusk, a Récollet priest walks in an arid and mountainous landscape with a pilgrim's staff.

Le Frère Louis, Récollet, 1830

Joseph Légaré
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Collection, 1994.24980




Sur la rive du fleuve Saint-Laurent, des amérindiens arrivent à un campement de fortune fabriqué de troncs d'arbres et d'écorce à bord de quatre canots. / On the banks of the St. Lawrence River, Amerindians travelling in four canoes arrive at a makeshift camp, built with tree trunks and bark.

Indian Scene on the St. Lawrence, 1840

William Henry Bartlett
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Collection, 1993.16304




Carte géographique où l'on identifie les paroisses et les lieux des missions catholiques situés le long de la vallée du fleuve Saint-Laurent. / Map identifying the Catholic parishes and missions along the valley of the St. Lawrence River.

Carte générales des Paroisses et missions établies des deux côtés du fleuve St. Laurent depuis Rimousky en montant jusqu'au Côteau des Cèdres, circa 1790

Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Archives, T-24




Carte géographique manuscrite de la Côte nord jusqu'à Québec, signalant les principales villes, les dénivellations terrestres et la faune animale de la vallée du fleuve Saint-Laurent. / Hand-drawn map of the North Shore, ending at Quebec City, indicating the main towns, differences in altitude and local wildlife of the St. Lawrence Valley.

Carte de la mine d'argent, 1897

Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Archives, V-13




Sur le haut d'une montagne, hommes et femmes se recueillent devant une croix érigée sur un socle. / On a mountaintop, men and women gather at the foot of a cross standing on a plinth.

Fondation de Montréal, undated

Georges Henri Duquet
in Adélard Desrosiers, Petite histoire du Canada, 1933
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Library, 295.5.20




Aux abords d'une chute, des Amérindiens portent un canot pendant qu'un explorateur et un coureur des bois marche dans une nature automnale. / Near an Amerindian camp, a priest and a soldier meet four Amerindians holding peace pipes.

Première rencontre des Illinois, between 1844 and 1846

James Duncan
in Jacques Viger, Ma Saberdache
Musée de la civilisation, Séminaire de Québec Collection, Viger-Verreau Fund, O-102